Nanofibrillated cellulose was prepared from distillery refuse based on maize starch using the extraction with NaOH and HCl involving centrifugation. SEM images of bleached kraft pulp with/without the addition of nanofibrillated cellulose were compared. The results showed that the application of nanofibrillated cellulose caused a visible reduction in the surface porosity. Conversely, mixing of the pulp with the nanofibrillated cellulose resulted in large pores among the fibres. The effect of the cationic retention aid on porosity was not significant, observed in the fines retention. A minimal difference in porosity was found among of fine and coarse fibres. When lyophilisation as drying method was used it yielded nanofibrillated cellulose with a size in the range of approximately 100 to 150 nm.
This study presents the influence of retention reagents and multi-component retention systems on properties of pulp suspension which is used during toilet paper production. The following relationships were evaluated: influence of retention systems on rate of pulp suspension water drainage, values of specific cationic and anionic demand, Zeta potential of fibers, WRV values of fibers and water turbidity. The best results were achieved from applying three-component retention system which consisted of micro-milled bentonite Hydrocol OT, modified cationic polyethylenimin Polymín SK and cationic polyacrylamide Percol 830. The above mentioned three-component retention system resulted in increased rate of pulp suspension drainage by 43 %, improvement of water turbidity by 50 % and decrease of specific cationic demand by 33 %. The proposed retention system resulted in improved values of WRV pulp suspensions, which led to decrease of values by about 10 %. Influence of three-component retention system resulted only in minimal decrease of Zeta potential values for fibers.
Wheat straw is an abundant and readily available lignocellulosic material potentially suitable for the second generation bioethanol production. Steam explosion was investigated as a suitable pretreatment method. Effect of steam explosion temperature on wheat straw enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Optimum steam explosion temperature at around 200°C was determined based on concentration of monosaccharides in hydrolysates, conversion of cellulose and xylan and yield of monosaccharides from wheat straw. This corresponds to creating conditions resulting in sufficient damage to the lignocellulose structure which leads to higher enzyme accessibility. Lower temperature does not enable sufficient enzyme accessibility while excessively high temperature results in significant breakdown of monosaccharides and lignin and creation of inhibitors. The amount of originated inhibitors was also determined for each studied steam explosion temperature.
The article describes a method of preparing particles from waste particle boards (chipboards) and oriented strand boards (OSBs). Their reuse is the main target of recycling. Method of their destruction was determined in this work. Agglomerated materials disintegrated after an initial destruction were further processed under specified conditions with regard to the material humidity, type of materials, contained adhesives and given characteristics of final particles – wood chips. Wood particles obtained were characterized by a fractional composition and amount of residual formaldehyde as an important parameter for the reuse of waste materials in production of furniture boards. New chipboards and pulp for production of middle density fiberboards (MDFs) will be provided from such defined particles.
This paper present the results of application of inorganic minerals and organic polymers for elimination of sticky impurities “macrostickies” in the processing of recovered paper. The impact of individual agents has been monitored on different species of suspensions. On the dark suspension of recycled fibres VL5 with a brightness 53% ISO and an ash content of 17.6%, and the suspension VL1 with a brightness 64% ISO and an ash content of 29.4%. From inorganic minerals, the highest efficiency was achieved in the elimination of macrostickies using bentonite Hydrocol OT. At a dose of 5 kg bentonite.t-1 b.d. recycled fibres efficiency of 65.1% for suspension VL5 and 58.7% for VL1 was achieved. The highest performance of the Acefloc 2550 was achieved from the polymers. When applied to the VL5 suspension, the macrostickies were reduced by 57.1%, and when applied to the VL1 suspension, the macrostickies content dropped by 56.5%.
The paper describes a process for the preparation of fibre from waste wood particleboards (PB), oriented strand chipboard (OSB) and medium density fibreboard (MDF). The purpose of recycling of agglomerated wood materials is to reuse them for the production of fibrous materials. The agglomerated materials disintegrated after the initial destruction were further processed under the specified conditions with respect to the moisture content, their type, adhesive used, and properties of final particles – wood chips. The obtained wood particles were characterized by the fractional composition of chips. The resulting chips were mechanically defibred with subsequent characterization of fiber obtained for its reuse in the manufacture of MDF. A quantity of formaldehyde released into the water when cooking waste MDF and PB was set up depending on the cooking time. Residual level of formaldehyde is the main chemical load that determines the amount of waste material that can be reused for production of new panels based on ureaformaldehyde adhesives.
The effect of steam explosion on enzymatic hydrolysis of various parts of poplar tree (heartwood, sapwood and 1-year coppice) was investigated. These parts were milled, the obtained sawdust was chemically analysed and then steam explosion of 0.7 mm poplar particles at temperature of 205°C was performed. Concentration of monomers obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis was considered as the main indicator for cellulose accessibility. Analysis of high performance liquid chromatography showed that non-treated poplar sawdust does not enable sufficient cellulose accessibility, while excessively high temperature and rapid pressure release resulted in substantial breakdown of polysaccharides and lignin and formation of inhibitors. The concentration of monomers increased gradually in the order of coppice, sapwood and heartwood. Steam exploded heartwood gave the maximum monosaccharides concentration of 90.0 g.L-1 after 72 hours of enzymatic hydrolysis. However, glucose concentration culminated after 48 hours of this hydrolysis. This corresponds to the best holocellulose accessibility for enzymes. The maximum concentration of inhibitors (9.3 g.L-1) was determined for poplar coppice after 24 hours of enzymatic hydrolysis.
Beech wood is one of the most abundant species and the most harvested hardwood in Slovak Republic. The structure and chemical composition predetermines beech wood for the second generation bioethanol production. Steam explosion of beech wood from industrial treatment was investigated as a suitable pretreatment method. The effect of steam explosion temperature on beech sawdust enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Optimum steam explosion temperature at around 180°C was determined based on concentration of monosaccharides in hydrolysates and concentration of enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitors such as formic acid and acetic acid from beech sawdust. This corresponds to creating conditions resulting in good disintegration to the lignocellulosic structure which leads to increased cellulose accessibility. Non-treated beech sawdust does not enable sufficient cellulose accessibility while excessively high temperature results in significant breakdown of monosaccharides and lignin and formation of inhibitors. The concentration of inhibitors was also determined for each studied steam explosion temperature. Based on steam explosion of beech sawdust, the effect of severity factors was investigated to find the optimum conditions of steam explosion pretreatment on cellulose and xylan recovery of beech wood. The obtained optimum steam explosion temperature corresponds to severity factor R0 = 3.36 (180°C, 10 minutes).
New requirements for the biofuels industry force individual enterprises to develop various procedures for newly selected substrates pretreatments that could be applicable in processing of large quantities of raw materials. Even greater pressures are on second-generation biofuels producers justified by selection of waste lignocellulosic substrates and methods of substrate processing. Among the most suitable lignocellulosic raw materials in Slovak Republic (SR) for 2G bioethanol production is wheat straw. This raw material (Senec region, SR) for enzymatic hydrolysis was pretreated by dry milling (Brabender), cyclic freezing and thawing, wet milling (Sprout Waldron), two-step process of steam explosion at 180°C and extrusion at 145°C and one-step process of steam explosion at different temperatures. Wheat straw holocellulose accessibility was tested by adsorption of three commercially available dyes (Pylam Products Company, Inc., USA). Absorptivity coefficient of each dye at its maximum wavelength was determined from individual calibration curves of dyes and their values resulted ranging from 13.78 to 19.52 dm3.g-1.cm-1. The absorption of solution was measured and concentration of residual dye was calculated at given wavelength. The accessibility of holocellulose contained in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion was controlled by SEM (scanning electron microscope) in correlation with the ratio of adsorbed dyes according to the modified Simons’ method.