Herein, we evaluated the content of condensed tannins present in the bark of four tree species that are Quercus laurina Humb. & Bonpl., Quercus crassifolia Humb. & Bonpl., Arbutus xalapensis Kunth, and Prunus serotina Ehrn. An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for condensed tannin extracts was developed and validated. Also, the aqueous extracts were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Based on the Stiasny number, A. xalapensis, and Q. laurina represent an important source of condensed tannins, which may be subject to exploitation. Using infrared spectroscopy, it was observed that tannins do not show an important signal of carbonyl groups (aromatic esters) with respect to high purity catechin. Furthermore, the band of the hydroxyl group is less pronounced in tannins, because various hydroxyl are interacting with each other. However, it can be seen that the method of extraction of wood tannins developed in this work, presents satisfactory results.
This paper presents an anticorrosive method to protect bamboo from the corrosion induced by coating a layer of epoxy resin on the surface of bamboo slices. Four surface modifications including heat treatment, alkali treatment, coupling treatment and acetylation treatment are applied to bamboo slices. The results indicate that the ultimate tension of bamboo slices decreases when corroded in solutions with different pH for different time, while epoxy resin protects the bamboo slices from corrosion to maintain the tensile properties by coated on its surface. The surface morphology indicates that four modifications have different degrees of influence on the surface and material of bamboo slices, which can reduce the ultimate tension of bamboo slices, but improve the interfacial combination between the surface of bamboo slices and epoxy resin. Acetylation treatment was the most effective modification analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) among them.
The aim of this study has been to investigate the suitability of Pannónia poplar (Populus × euramericana cv. Pannónia) timber for structural purposes. Static and dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE) has been determined on samples of 4 different Hungarian plantation origins. The results of the dynamic test showed the same range as the static test, showing a good correlation of the two measurements. As result it can be stated that the domestic Hungarian Pannónia poplar species have in average 11000 N.mm-2 modulus of elasticity. This exceeds considerably the threshold limit value (7000 N.mm-2) necessary for structural applications according to Eurocode 5. Therefore Pannonia poplar is suitable for structural applications, and are a good alternative of the widely used coniferous species in construction sector.
The pine stems were cut from three different polluted environments – Ist trees degradation degree (weak pollution), IInd trees degradation degree (strong pollution) and IIIrd trees degradation degree (connected with very strong pollution). On the basis of obtained results it was stated that environmental pollution caused changes in late wood participation, as well as distribution of cellulose on the stem cross- and longitudinal section. It also changed cellulose content in bark from the butt-end section, which was about 26% regardless the degradation degree. The environmental pollution caused also an increase of viscometric average polymerization degree of cellulose in heartwood in relation to heartwood adjacent sapwood and sapwood from butt-end section. Regardless the degradation degree, cellulose polymerization degree in heartwood adjacent sapwood from the middle part of the stem was higher in comparison to sapwood and heartwood. Moreover, the environmental pollution caused the increase of viscometric average polymerization degree of cellulose in bark. The polymerization degree of cellulose in bark from the butt-end section of IIIrd degradation degree stems was 22% and 23% higher in comparison to the Ist and IInd degradation degree.
To prepare hydrophobic wood with rose-like hydrophobic surface and avoid moisture damage to wood. In this paper, With polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the elastic mold, the microstructure of the rose petals was replicated on the wood surfaces by soft lithography. The soft lithography technique was used to modify the wood sur-face, transferring over it a rose-like topography, based on a micro/nano hierarchical structure using fresh rose as the template. The surface of poplar coated with polystyrene was reconstructed twice using 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10% PVA as templates, respectively. The results show that the average contact angle of poplar surface coated with polystyrene is more than 130°, that of fresh rose surface is about 140°, and that of untreated wood is about 60°. Therefore, the wood surface with polystyrene has obtained a similar structure to that of rose surface and has a certain hydrophobicity. In addition, the microstructures observed by means of SEM, showing rough surface structures with micro-nanopapillate hills on wood surfaces. Water droplets could easily roll down on such wood surfaces, exhibiting super-hydrophobic and low adhesion properties. The successful fabrication of rose-like wood provided a new direction for researches on the super-hydrophobic of wood, which could effectively prevent the damage of moisture to wood.
The article presents results of the elimination of sticky impurities from recovered paper in laboratory flotation of three pulp suspensions with different whiteness, obtained directly from the production line before entering flotation. A combination of commercial agents releasing undesirable substances from recovered paper and means for regulation and stabilization of froth and modified micronized bentonit was used. In the flotation purification of pulp suspension with a whiteness of 53%, the combination of Prodeink Extra, Prodeink AS10 and Hydrocol OT reduced the macrostickies content by 58%, the ash content decreased from 18.5% to 4.5%, the whiteness increased from 53% to 56.4% and the residual color content was reduced from 385 ppm to 294 ppm. The pulp suspension with a whiteness of 64% showed a reduction in the content of macrostickies by 66%, a reduction in the ash content by 23.2%, an increase in whiteness by 1.4% and a reduction in the residual color content from 245 ppm to 194 ppm. The pulp suspension with a whiteness of 68.3% showed a decrease in the content of macrostickies by 58.1%, the ash content decreased from 35.7% to 6.3%, the whiteness increased by 1.1% and the content of residual color decreased from 157 ppm to 117 ppm.
The research consisted in testing Polish sawn timber dedicated for construction applications made of pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) that grew in the Silesian Forestry Region, taking into account three parts of the log: butt, middle and top. The boards had the same cross section, a nominal thickness of 40 mm and width of 138 mm, typical for Polish structural timber. The mean nominal length of the boards under research amounted to 3500 mm. Each set was composed of 70 boards. Before the tests, boards were dried in an industrial drier until reaching the moisture content of 12%, and they were planed on 4 sides. First of all, the sawn timber was graded into strength classes, and their dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE_dyn) was tested with a non-destructive method, with the use of a portable MTG device. The next step consisted in a bending test with four points of support, according to the EN 408 standard, and with the use of the TiraTest 2300 machine, in order to determine the global modulus of elasticity (MOE_EN-408) and the static bending strength, also referred to as modulus of rupture (MOR). Finally, the average growth ring width was determined for each board (PN-D-94021), as well as wood density according to EN-408. The hereby paper presents the test results for all the tested sawn timber boards, taking into account the part of log that each board came from: butt, middle or top. The hereby paper presents the influence of density on the mechanical properties of wood, taking into account the location on the round timber. The analysis does not include the influence of the width of annual growth rings and the proportion of latewood on the wood properties under research.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) wood were thermally treated in an oven at the temperatures of 160°C, and 200°C under atmospheric pressure in the presence of air for 3 and 9 hrs. The mass loss and gross calorific value were determined. Non-treated wood samples achieved a gross calorific value of 22 193 J.g-1 for pine wood and 19 277 J.g-1 for oak wood. Whereas the calorific value of pine wood with increasing severity of treatment decreased, in the case of oak it increased. The mass loss increased with increasing treatment severity by both wood species. Mentioned differences in pine and oak wood behaviour using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were explained. In the case of pine wood with increasing temperature and time of exposure a decrease of resin acids was observed. This may be contributed to decrease in GCV. In the case of oak wood, mainly at temperature of 200°C the degradation of hemicelluloses was observed that results in relative increasing in the lignin content with followed increase in the GCV.
Bamboo filaments were treated with boric acid and borax (the mass ratio of 1:1, the concentration of 20%) with four different treatment methods including atmospheric immersion, cold and hot bath immersion, vacuum impregnation and vacuum-pressure impregnation. The different treatment methods on the boron loading were analyzed and the corresponding flame resistance of bamboo filaments were evaluated by the cone analysis. The results showed that suitable treatment method with optimized processing indexes, such as hot and cold bath immersion in the condition of 100°C/2 h and 20°C/2 h with 3 cycles, was more credible to accelerate the percentages of boron loading in the bamboo filaments, and the lowest result was found in the samples with vacuum impregnation. Compared to the untreated samples, the heat and smoke release would be decreased significantly, especially for the samples with the promising hot and cold treatment, and promising pressure treatment, attributed to the more stable boron fixed in the bamboo filaments.
This research aimed to characterize the wood species Goiabão (Planchonella pachycarpa), following the precepts set forth in the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 7190, as well as to evaluate the possibility of estimating physical and mechanical properties, using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a function of apparent density, and also to estimate the stiffness properties as a function of the respective strength property. The physical and mechanical properties were considered adequate for the use of this wood for structural purposes, being classified in class C40. According to the results of the regression models, it is possible to estimate the tensile strength parallel to the fibers as a function of the apparent density. It was also possible to estimate the longitudinal elastic modulus in the compression parallel to the fibers as a function of the compressive strength parallel to the fibers.
The porosity and pore size distribution of recent and ancient buried Phoebe zhennan are studied in this paper by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the micropore and mesopore diameters of recent and buried wood are mainly distributed in range of 40.3 nm and 183.1 nm respectively, while the macropore in 45276.6 nm and 3503.9 nm separately. For both samples, the pores with diameters below 349.9 nm account for about 60% of the total intrusion volume, and contribute more than 98% of the surface area. The cumulative pore area of recent wood is slightly greater and the pore diameter ranges from 50.3 nm to 349.9 nm. While the cumulative pore area of buried wood is significantly larger than and the pore diameter ranges until 50.3 nm. These results can provide information for further investigations on the sorption behaviour and the liquid permeability of ancient buried wood.
The influence of lignin content on reclaimed rubber (RR)/natural rubber (NR) blend composite properties has successfully been studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to understand morphology. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the possible chemical interaction, whereas thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tester were used to predict strength and elongation for possible practical applications. The results indicated that the presence of lignin forms cavities which seemed to arise from complex interactions of the blend with the lignin. Those cavities dominated tensile fractured surface and the increase in lignin indicated inconsistencies of interfacial interactions. Lignin RR/NR blend composites revealed a drop in tensile strength and shift in glass transition temperature, except for the highest lignin containing blend composite. More active interactive constituent of the blend appeared to be NR. The interaction has not favored the thermal stability and crosslinking density.
In the study, part of degraded wooden components of Danxia Temple ancient architectures in China were indentified through the bright field microscope, and chemical compositions in cell walls were observed using polarized and fluorescence lights, respectively. The results showed that samples were belonged to Quercus spp., Ulmus spp., Salix spp., and Populus spp., respectively. Cellulose composition in Quercus spp. was seriously consumed by brown decay fungi, cellulose and lignin compositions in Ulmus spp. were consumed by white decay fungi under polarized and fluorescence light observations. All of these four kind of tree species themselves were easily vulnerable to be attacked by insects.
The aim of this study was to determine the 4-point bending strength and modulus of elasticity in bending of Black pine wood laminated materials reinforced with aramid fiber was bonded using epoxy or polyurethane glues separately. The samples were prepared in accordance with the TS 5497 EN 408 (2006). The results of the study determined that the highest value for static bending strength was found in the laminated wood samples (83.94 N.mm-2) that were prepared using inter-layer aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and epoxy glue. The highest value of modulus of elasticity in bending was found in the samples prepared with inter-layer epoxy and AFRP (10311.62 N.mm-2). It was observed that the samples parallel to the glue line of the laminated material showed higher performance compared to those perpendicular to the glue line. The data obtained as a result of this study demonstrated that aramid fiber reinforced Black pine wood laminated materials can be used in the building industry as building materials.
The effect of tenon length and tenon width on withdrawal load capacity of mortise and tenon (M-T) joint was studied based on the finite element method (FEM), and the relationship of withdrawal load capacity relating to tenon length and tenon width was regressed using response surface method. The results showed that the tenon length and tenon width had remarkable effects on withdrawal load capacity of M-T joint T-shaped sample. The effect of tenon length on withdrawal load capacity was greater than tenon width. The regression equation used to predict the withdrawal load capacity was capable of optimizing the tenon sizes of M-T joint with R-square of 0.926. Using FEM can get more knowledge of M-T joint visually, and reduce the costs of materials and time of experiments.