The effects of some polymer additives, also called super plasticizers, on selected physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board were investigated. Two different kinds of poly carboxylic ether (PF300, DX40) and a melamine based polymer (300M) were added to the wood cement mixture. The ratios of polymer additives to the wood cement mixture were 1%, 1.2% and 1.4%. Cement bonded particleboards were manufactured with wood/cement (w/w) ratio of 1:3; target density of 1300 kg.m-3, and CaCl2 content of 5%. The cement bonded particleboards were tested for water absorption (2 and 24 hour), thickness swelling (2 and 24 hour), bending stiffness and strength and internal bond strength. Results of the study showed that most of the polymer addition decreased water absorption and thickness swelling of the boards. Replacement of cement with polymers increased internal bond strength and bending stiffness of the boards while bending strength was slightly reduced. Use of small amount of super plasticizers significantly improves most of the board properties.
Based on acoustic spiral metasurface, a spiral structural layer was designed to apply to timber construction interior wall. The sound absorption coefficient was measured by impedance tube method and compared with Helmholtz resonance structural layer, solid structural layer and air layer in traditional wall. The results show that the combination of the spiral structural layer and the wall can optimize the sound absorption performance of the wall in the medium and low frequency. Without reducing the overall sound-absorbing performance of the wall, can achieve perfect sound absorption in some medium and low frequency sound bands.
In this study, hydrothermal treatments (duration: 2 h, 5 h, 8 h; temperature: 60°C, 80°C, 100°C), ultrasonic treatments (duration: 60 min, 90 min, 120 min; temperature: 40°C, 50°C, 60°C; ultrasonic power: 400 W, 600 W, 800 W) and freeze-drying treatments (vacuum degree: 0.05 mbar, 0.1 mbar, 0.5 mbar, 1.0 mbar, 1.7 mbar) were performed respectively to improve the permeability of glue-laminated bamboo. The effects of different pre-treatments on the permeability were compared according to the water absorption test and the mercury intrusion porosimetry test. The microstructure change of the samples was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that freeze-drying treatment was an effective way to increase the permeability of the samples, in which the water absorption rate can be increased by 47%, and the porosity can be increased by 10% at 0.5 mbar vacuum. From SEM analysis, some small holes appeared in the cell wall of the freeze-dried samples, because he free water inside the samples was changed into ice, and the volume became larger, and the pore diameter of the bamboo was enlarged.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oil-heat treatment on the anatomical, physical, and chemical properties of the tropical fast-growing wood species as gmelina (Gmelinaarborea) and mindi (Melia azedarach) wood. Vessel lumen area and diameter in radial and tangential direction of both species increased with increasing temperature. The fiber lumen areas in both woods were remarkably decreased by oil-heat treatment, and the fiber wall area increased considerably with increasing temperature. Both woods tended to gain weight after heat treatment at 180°C and 200°C, and then lose weight after heat treatment at 220°C. The density of mindi increased greatly at 180°C and 200°C and slightly decreased at 220°C. The dimension of the specimens in tangential direction increased with heat treatment, but the rate decreased with increasing temperature. The relative crystallinity and crystallite width of the heat-treated woods were greater than those of the untreated wood. In the Fourier transform infrared analyses, the peaks from the carbohydrates were changed after oil-heat treatment, mainly due to the degradation of hemicellulose. Consequently, it was revealed that the heat treatment affected various properties of gmelina and mindi woods. Differing characteristics between the species were also noted.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of bleaching chemicals and varnishes on the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the combustion of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, samples of Oriental beech prepared according to ASTM D 358 contain 18% R1 = (NaOH + H2O2), R2 = (NaOH + Ca(OH)2 + H2O2), R3 = (Na2S2O5 + H2C2O4), R4 = (NaSiO3 + H2O2), R5 = (KMnO4 + Na2S2O5 + H2O2) solution groups, after bleaching with solution groups, water based, synthetic, polyurethane and acrylic varnish were applied according to ASTM D 3023 and combustion tests were carried out in accordance with ASTM E 160-50. Gas measurements were made with the SIGMA 74172 NSU flue gas device during the combustion process. As a result, in respect to the burning types; the highest amount of CO2 (ppm) was found in the self-combustion (8.468 ppm) while the lowest was obtained from the flame combustion source (4.599 ppm). In respect to the types of bleaching; the highest in R5 (7.458 ppm) and the lowest in R3 (4.059 ppm) were found. According to the varnish types; the highest value was found in the synthetic varnish (8.261), and the lowest value was found in the acrylic varnish (4.772 ppm). According to combustion type + bleaching solution + varnish type interaction, the highest values were found for without flame combustion (II) + R3 + Sn (18.40 ppm) and lowest for flame source combustion (I) + R5 + Pu (0.600 ppm). Consequently, the highest values for combustion gases were found in samples of oriental beech wood samples treated with water-based varnish with R1 solution. According to this, in terms of human health and life safety, possibility of fire in places, R3 solution and acrylic varnish may be used in the related industries.
This study aims at investigating the effect of three altitude levels (below 1800 m, 1800-2000 m and above 2000 m) on the physical and biometric properties of stem-wood and branch-wood of hawthorn species. Moreover, the relationship between wood dry density and volumetric swelling, fiber length, fiber diameter, cell wall thickness were studied. Results indicated that altitude had significant effects on the dry density, volumetric swelling and fiber length of stem wood while did not significant effects on the density of branch wood. Additionally, some physical and biometric properties had relatively greater correlation coefficients in branch wood than in stem wood whereas others had higher coefficients in stem wood compared to branch wood. Deep understanding of properties this wood species will provide a fresh insight into the relationship between wood properties and environmental factors.
For use as decoration panels, wood fiber was used to prepare a new type of aromatic fiberboard using hot-press technology that mixes spices and adhesives. Experiments showed that the use of different proportions of two kinds of spices, wormwood and lavender, mixed with waterborne acrylic adhesives, had a slight influence on the curing time and viscosity of the glue. The different mixtures equally affected the physical and mechanical properties of the fiberboard and the smells similarly affected brain wave frequencies. The experimental results showed that a 20% proportion of lavender and wormwood was optimal compared with 5%, 10%, and 15%, and this amount also provided the best health-care effect. This work provides the experimental data and a theoretical basis to achieve pharmacological and health-care effects for the development of aromatic and other special kinds of fiberboard for industrial applications.
To compare the wood quality of Dahurian larch and Japanese larch growing in Korea, the physical and mechanical properties were examined using the Korean standards. The proportion of heartwood was 82% and 72% in Dahurian and Japanese larch, respectively. The percentage of latewood was 42% in Dahurian larch and 35% in Japanese larch. The growth ring width of Dahurian larch was narrower than that of Japanese larch. Dahurian larch showed about 20% higher green moisture content compare to Japanese larch wood. Density and shrinkage of Dahurian larch were higher than Japanese larch. Axial compression strength, young`s modulus in compression, and shearing strength in heartwood of Dahurian larch were 11 MPa, 686 MPa, and 2.3 MPa, respectively, showing higher value than Japanese larch. The hardness was in the range of 13.8–38.7 MPa in Dahurian larch and 17.7–48.4 MPa in Japanese larch. The compression strength parallel to the grain and shearing strength in both species were significantly correlated with oven-dried density. Besides, the hardness in Dahurian larch was significantly correlated with latewood percentage and oven-dried density. In conclusion, the differences in the properties of both species were revealed and the results can be used for quality indices of both wood species.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of kiln temperature, relative humidity and wood moisture content on the content of acid and alcohol released in the drying process of high temperature kiln by studying the radiated pine sawn timber of 40mm thickness. The drying temperature was between 101°C and 115°C, the relative humidity in the drying kiln was reduced from 86.1% to 39.6%, the moisture content of the lumber was reduced from 106.16% to 11.98%, and gas extraction was executed nine times with an extraction speed of 1.0 L•min-1 and a sampling time of 30 min. The concentrations of acids and alcohols were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that the concentrations of formic acid, acetic acid, and methanol emitted in the kiln during drying were 215.6-748.2, 4148.8-16803.2, and 6381.9-15648.9 mg•m-3, respectively, and these concentrations were significantly higher than the relevant standards. The concentrations of the emitted formic acid and acetic acid were proportional to the drying temperature, the concentrations of the emitted formic acid and acetic acid were inversely proportional to the relative humidity in the kiln and the moisture content of the lumber. The concentration of the emitted methanol was independent of the drying temperature, relative humidity in the kiln, and moisture content of the lumber. It is therefore suggested that formic acid, acetic acid, and methanol be separately recovered during the high-temperature drying of Pinus radiata lumber.
In this work, wet-process fibreboards (hardboards) were produced in the laboratory using industrial wood fibres of the species European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) at the total volume of 40%, and white poplar (Populus alba L.) at 60% volume. The effects of hot pressing pressure (varied from 3.3 MPa to 5.3 MPa) and pressing time (from 255 s to 355 s) on the physical and mechanical properties of hardboards were investigated and optimal values of the parameters for fulfilling the European standard requirements were determined. It was concluded that hardboards with acceptable physical and mechanical properties may be produced from 60% poplar wood waste and residues, combined with 40% hardwood raw materials (beech and oak) by regulating the hot pressing regime only, i.e. pressure and pressing time. The following minimum parameters for producing hardboards from mixed hardwood tree species were determined: a pressure of 4.6 MPa and a pressing time of 280 s.
The research focused in determining the lignification indicator of fresh needled springs and the mass of fresh needles in reference to the lignin content in tracheid walls of peripheral area of the stem (MFT/LC and MFN/LC) of Scots pine differentiated as far as its biosocial position within the community expressed by Kraft’s classification. The material for the analysis came from mature pine stands growing on North European Plain, on the territory of Poland. Chemical and structural analyses of wood encompassed the area of mature sapwood, i.e. thickness of the last 10 annual rings located at 1.3 m (DBH). It seems that the noticed differences values of both indicators (MFT/LC and MFN/LC) in pines belonging to the first three Kraft’s biological classes are connected with physiological, physical and structural conditionings of water transport with minerals in xylem and are closely connected with competition for sunlight, water, nutrients and living space.
The article presents the results of a marketing survey in the area of customer preferences in the case of different degrees of heat-treated solid wood and birch veneer. Part of the marketing survey was a questionnaire survey, where the respondents, as potential customers, expressed their preferences for individual samples which, at first glance, differed in colour due to the different degrees of heat treatment. The result of the research is a clear preference for the heat-treated samples compared to the reference sample without heat treatment. A more detailed secondary analysis of the data from the questionnaire survey was performed with regard to the gender, age and education of the respondents. Here, too, it is possible to conclude a clear preference for heat-treated samples for these groups of respondents. The article also analyses the possibilities of the marketing strategy with a focus on marketing communication, especially in relation to wood processors and producers.
Static load tests were carried out on three kinds of triangular girder trusses with different diameter wood dowels, and the effects of that on the structure of girder trusses were discussed. It was found that there was a good synergy between the wood dowels and the girder trusses. Among the triangular girder trusses with different diameters, the 16 mm diameters had the best energy dissipation performance increased by 184% and deformation resistance of 0.73 mm; the 20 mm diameters had the best stability performance, the better bearing capacity of 60.42 kN and deformation resistance of 0.82 mm. The bearing capacity of the double girder trusses was 2.06-2.25 times that of two single trusses, which had the ability to ‘one plus one is greater than two’.
A novel structural member, the bamboo plywood-encased thin-walled steel tube/stone dust concrete composite column (BSDCC), was investigated in this study. Axial compression tests were conducted on 10 BSDCC specimens; their failure characteristics and modes were examined, and the effects of the stone-dust concrete content ratio and strength, specimen slenderness ratio, cross-sectional composition and binding bar confinement pattern, and binding bar spacing ratio on the bearing capacity and deformation of the columns were investigated. Two main compressive failure modes were observed: (1) adhesive failure by cracking and debonding between the bamboo plywood boards and between the bamboo plywood and the steel tube and (2) compressive-flexural failure of the bamboo plywood between the binding bars in the middle of the specimen. For specimens with the same cross-sectional dimensions, the cross-sectional content ratio of the stone dust concrete impacted the deformation and failure mode but did not significantly affect the ultimate bearing capacity. The bearing capacity decreased with increasing specimen slenderness and binding bar spacing ratio and increased with increasing stone dust concrete strength and bamboo plywood constraint (in terms of the cross-sectional composition and binding bar restraint pattern). A model for the ultimate bearing capacity of BSDCCs was established through regression analysis.
The influence of addition of deinked pulps with low and high brightness to bleached eucalyptus and pine kraft pulps on functional tissue paper properties was studied. Deinked pulps with low and high brightness had some different functional properties. Deinked pulp with high brightness has higher bulk, porosity, water absorption after immersion, initial water absorption, bulk softness as well as brightness. On the contrary, the difference in relative bonded area and porosity e between deinked pulps with low and high brightness was moderate. The mixed pulps laboratory pulp sheets from bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp or bleached pine kraft pulp with addition of 20, 40 and 80% of deinked pulp with low brightness or deinked pulp with high brightness were prepared. The addition of the deinked pulp with high or low brightness to bleached kraft pulp leads to increasing of bulk, bulk softness as well as high water absorption after immersion and initial water absorption. The tensile index rapidly decreased by the addition of deinked pulps with high brightness to bleached eucalyptus and pine kraft pulps. Similarly, the addition of deinked pulp with low brightness to bleached pine kraft pulp led to rapid decreasing of tensile index. On contrary, with the addition of deinked pulp with low brightness to eucalyptus kraft pulp, the decreasing of tensile index was less pronounced. Mixed pulp from bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp with a small content of deinked pulp with low brightness with functional properties suitable for production of tissue papers was found as optimal.