Comprehensive approach to ensure durabilty of external wooden structures

The article deals with durability of wood, durability of wooden structures and surface modification of wood. We are trying to eliminate the factors causing degradation of wood with the use of photocatalytic materials. Those materials are efficient UV absorbers and they are able to destroy biological aggressors also. The planar particles of titanium oxide TiO2 were chosen for the purpose of our research and applied on a wooden surface. In our case, we used a water solution of TiO2. The main goal of our work was to study the interaction between planar particles of TiO2 and wood matter. The samples of pine wood (Pinus sylvestris) were monitored for 255 days and subsequently evaluated using an electron microscope. The use of TiO2 was compared with reference material and a reference commercial coating.

Characterization of anatomical, morphological, physical and chemical properties of konar (ziziphus spina-christi) wood

The goal of this research is to investigate some morphological (fibre length, fibre diameter, cell wall thickness, Runkel coefficient, flexibility coefficient, slenderness coefficient, rigidity coefficient, Luce’s coefficient, solid coefficient), physical (dry wood density, volumetric shrinkage) and chemical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, ash and acetone soluble extractives contents) composition of Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi) wood grown in Hormozgan province, Iran. For this purpose, three normal trees were selected randomly and a disk was cut from each one at breast height. Anatomical inspection revealed that the species was diffuse porous, with distinctive growth rings, simple preformation plate, with polygonal openings, and banded or diffuse-in aggregates parenchyma. The average values of wood dry density, fiber length, fiber diameter, cell wall thickness, Runkel coefficient, flexibility coefficient, felting coefficient, Luce’s coefficient, solid coefficient, rigidity coefficient were 0.926, 52.1, 77.85, 0.57, 163 ×103 μ3 and 0.48. Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, acetone soluble, extractives, ash contents were 43.34, 19.98, 33.9, 6.42 and 2.78%, resp.

Segment of wall panel for timber structures under vertical load

The subject of this paper is an experimental and numerical analysis of the stability of the wall panels with one-side board sheathing for timber structures. The reinforcement of the panel is provided using glued timber composite I-shaped element consisting of a web made of a wood-based desk embedded into flanges of solid timber. The mechanism of the behaviour of these panels, mode of the failure and reliable procedure to determine the buckling load-bearing capacity not been fully explored so far. This work describes the behaviour of the wall panel under vertical load and the method of failure using experimental and numerical analysis. The reduction coefficient kJ was determined, which can be used for a simple calculation of the buckling capacity of a wall panel.

Investigation the fire hazard of plywoods using a cone calorimeter

A high-efficiency fire retardant composition was prepared with dicyandiamide, phosphoric acid, boric acid, borax, urea and magnesium sulfate and it was used to process veneers which were then to prepare the plywood. Meanwhile, heat release and smoke release from combustion of plywood were tested by a cone calorimeter, including heat release rate, mass loss rate, CO yield, CO2 yield and oxygen consumption. Results showed that the plywood with this fire retardant treatment had the better flame-retardant performance and smoke suppression effect as well as the stronger char-forming capability compared to plywood without fire retardant treatment. The average heat release rate, total heat release, average effective heat of combustion, total smoke release, CO yield and oxygen consumption of the plywood with fire retardant treatment were decreased by 63.72%, 91.94%, 53.70%, 76.81%, 84.99% and 91.86%, respectively. Moreover, the fire growth index of plywood treated by fire retardant was relatively low (3.454 kW·m-2·s-1) and it took longer time to reach the peak heat release rate, accompanied with slow fire spreading. The fire performance index was relatively high (0.136 s·m2·kW-1) and it took longer time to be ignited, thus leaving a long time for escaping at fire accidents. The fire hazard of plywood with fire retardant treatment was low, and its safety level was high.

Comparative analysis of composite timber-concrete ceiling systems

This paper compares two concepts of composite timber concrete ceilings and their uncoupled alternatives based on a parametric study by comparing the final deflections of individual variants and at the same time considering according to the ultimate limit state. It includes a comparison of coupled and uncoupled variants while maintaining the same boundary conditions as the load, the thickness of the ceiling structure and the load width. By considering other factors, we can achieve more optimal variant, thanks to more accurate consideration of the required boundary conditions such as the complexity of installation or fire resistance. The purpose of this paper is to simplify the optimal selection of the ceiling structure based on the suitability of the supporting structure.

Research on shear performance of components connected by beech and self-tapping screw composite dowels

This study examined the properties of components connected by beech and self-tapping screw composite dowels (group C). As a contrast, the components connected by beech dowels and self-tapping screws individually were tested. The test results indicated that the properties of the components connected by beech dowels (group B) were better than those connected by self-tapping screws (group S), except the ductility coefficient, final displacement, and energy consumption. On the other hand, the main failure modes of groups B and S were the broken beech dowel and the bent self-tapping screw, respectively. For group C, two peak values could be found which were larger than the maximum load of groups B and S, respectively. The properties of group C were better than those of groups B and S, except that the final displacement and energy consumption were located between those of groups B and S. Meanwhile, the linear equation in two unknowns have be found between groups B, S and C.

Effect of edge distances on stiffness of shear-tension mode in glulam connections with inclined screws

The effects of edge distances on stiffness in glulam connections with inclined selftapping screws were studied in this paper. Under four anchorage angles (A-45°, A-60°, A-75°, A-90°) and three edge distances (EG-2D, EG-4D, EG-6D) conditions, the shear-tension tests were carried out on the timber structure connections with inclined self-tapping screws, and the stiffness and other properties of the connections were tested. Based on the results, the effects of edge distances on stiffness in joints were quantified using the equivalent energy elastic-plastic (EEEP) model. The results showed that the edge distances had a certain impact on the yield mode and load-carrying performance of the joints. Within a certain range of variation, as the edge distance increased, the stiffness of the connections increased gradually, showing a positive correlation. The stiffness of specimen EG-2D is 4.41 kN·mm-1. The stiffness of specimen EG-4D is 10.04 kN·mm-1, which increases by 128% compared with the specimen EG-2D. The stiffness of specimen EG-6D is 12.08 kN·mm-1, which increases by 174% compared with the specimen EG-2D. However, the ductility coefficient, yielding load, and energy dissipating have no significant change. Within a reasonable edge distance, only ductile damage occurred.

Anatomical properties of straw of various annual plants used for the production of wood panels

The aim of this study was to determine basic anatomical features of annual plant fibers used as wood substitutes for the production of wood-based panels. For this purpose rye, wheat, triticale, rape and corn straw were used. The determination of the morphological features of the fibers was conducted on the macerated material. Fiber lengths, fiber diameters and lumens were measured, and then the fiber wall thicknesses and slenderness ratios were calculated. The result clearly showed significant differences among all fiber characteristics of the tested plants. The strength and direction of the relationship between the anatomical properties determined in the study and the physicomechanical properties of the boards produced with straw from the tested annual plants were identified.

Investigation of effect of using nano coating on wooden sheds on dynamic parameters

In this article, the dynamic parameters (frequencies, mode shapes, damping ratios) of the uncoated wooden shed and the coated by silicon dioxide are compared using the operational modal analysis method. Ambient excitation was provided from micro tremor ambient vibration data on ground level. Enhanced frequency domain decomposition (EFDD) was used for output. Very best correlation was found between mode shapes. Nano-SiO2 gel applied to the entire outer surface of the red oak shed has an average of 14.54% difference in frequency values and 13.53% in damping ratios, proving that nanomaterials can be used to increase internal rigidity in wooden slabs. High adherence of silicon dioxide to wooden surfaces was observed as another important result of this study.

The soy flour as an extender for uf and muf adhesives in birch plywood production

Formaldehyde emission still remains a major disadvantage of widely applied formaldehyde-containing amino resins such as UF (urea-formaldehyde) resin and MUF (melamine-urea-formaldehyde) resin. The compositions of adhesives for plywood manufacturing have to contain a proper extenders in order to adjust their viscosity. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of protein-rich soy flour (SF) as the extender for adhesives. The composition of flours and their ability to absorb the formaldehyde were determined. Properties of liquid resins such as gel time, viscosity, pH and solid content were investigated. The possible chemical interaction between the extenders and resins were assessed with the use of FTIR spectroscopy. Plywood panels manufactured using UF and MUF adhesives with the soy flour introduced as the extender in various concentrations were tested in terms of shear strength and formaldehyde release. Studies have shown that soy flour has a favorable composition and formaldehyde-scavenging ability. The addition of SF affected resins properties such as viscosity and gel time but showed no influence on their pH and solid content. FTIR analysis has not explained the chemical interaction between resin and extender. The application of soy flour in the concentration of 15% for UF resin and 10% for MUF resin allowed to produce plywood characterized by improved bonding quality and decreased formaldehyde emission.

Surface irregularities of oak wood after transversal cutting with a circular saw

This paper deals with the effect of saw blade type (24, 40 and 60 teeth) and sawn distance on the primary profile (Pz) of tranvesre surface of European oak (Quercus robur L.) after transversal cutting. Transversal cutting was provided at constant cutting speed vc = 62 m.s-1 and with manual feeding using circular saw blade. An additional parameter was to determine the maximum sawn distance for each type of saw blade up to the point where the saw blade overheated, as well as the beginning of the blackening of the wood surface. The highest values of the primary profile (Pz) were achieved with a saw blade with 24 teeth, lower values were measured on wood cut with a 40 tooth blade and the lowest values after cutting with a 60 tooth blade. As the saw distance increased, there was no rapid and steep increase in the primary profile values, but these values gradually increased slightly, probably due to the gradual blunting of the tool.

The importance of using multiple analyses techniques to determine the physical condition of the waterlogged wood near the corroded parts

In this study, three samples taken from the planks of the Yenikapı 29 shipwreck were analysed. Firstly, the maximum water content (MWC) and basic density values of the samples were calculated. MWC of the IK13-1 was 164% and the MWC of the SK6-1 was 87%. Because of these low MWC values, samples could be classified as non-degraded. When the SEM images of these two samples were examined, it was understood that the IK13-1 sample was non-degraded but the SK6-1 sample was penetrated with corrosion product and could not be classified as non-degraded. With these analyses, the XRF method was used to measure the iron amounts of the samples. The iron amount of the SK6-1 was 32.3% and the corrosion accumulation in this sample was also proved with XRF. In order to avoid incorrect results, multiple analysis techniques should be used for determining the physical condition of the waterlogged wood near the corroded parts.

Development of a machine for chopping wood residues

CAD software and FEM analysis were used to modify the drum of threshing machine into machine for chopping wood residues. The operating parameters that affecting the performance of the chopping machine are drum speed (450, 1000 and 1200 rpm), three stages of serrated disk arrangement clearance between drum flail knives (0.7, 1.5 and 3 cm) and three levels of feeding capacity (W1 􀵌 300, W2 = 360 and W3 = 420 kg.h-1). The developed machine was operated by the addition of two types of knives (sharp free knives + serrated discs) to the original knife existing already in the machine. The machine was evaluated in terms of production capacity, cutting efficiency, power requirements and energy consumption. Using the modified (serrated) saw disk mill and flail knives reduced the energy requirement for chopping and raised fine degree of the chopped materials and solve the clogging problem. The cutting productivity and cutting efficiency raised with reducing the clearance between flail knives (0.7, 1.5 and 3 cm) while the power requirements and energy consumption reduced.

Hardwood trade in selected countries of eastern europe

This study focuses on trade of hardwood products in selected countries of Eastern Europe, specifically the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. It was supported by a survey conducted with companies producing products made of hardwoods. It monitors trade trends in the wood products industry, specifically focusing on lumber, wooden veneers, furniture production, musical instruments, and wooden accessories. It also addresses the current and potential import and use of the US hardwood lumber in these countries. The study is also pointing out the shortcomings of the monitored markets. The online questionnaire and follow-up phone calls were used to obtain information from companies in countries of interest. Results showed that 83.3% of Czech respondents already use imported hardwoods in their production, followed by Hungary (69.2%) and Slovakia (54.6%). Despite the relatively high values of imported hardwood products, the overall results show that there is only a small potential for an increase in import of the US hardwoods in the wood products industry in chosen countries. The utilization of tropical hardwood species will continue because of their superior properties for specialized products such as musical instruments. Results also point out the grooving importance of certified hardwoods, their utilization, and trade.