Leucaena leucocephala stem bark that was eleven years old was studied for its chemical composition and usage. The samples were subjected to chemical analyses based on ASTM standard procedures after being air-dried for several days. The results found that the bark of L. leucocephala has a pH value of 6.04 and that the solubility of the bark in 1% NaOH alkali is the highest compared to the solubility in hot water (14.45%) and cold water (14.36%), while the chemical composition of the bark of L. leucocephala was ash (15.76%); extractives (8.39%); holocellulose (132.85%); hemicellulose (103.66%); cellulose (29.19%) and lignin (38.24%). Based on the findings, L. leucocephala bark was less acidic. When used as a source of carbohydrates, bark has a high solubility, and its chemical composition may have an impact on how quickly it burns when it is pyrolysed.
Teak wood is used at the juvenile stage due to short-rotation, therefore, this study aims to describe the extractive content of stem, bark, branch, and twig parts of the wood as value-added chemicals from secondary metabolites. Moreover, the main stems comprise of sapwood, heartwood, and bark while the branch and twig are made of sapwood together with bark. In this study, the sample trees were 6 and 8 years old with three replications from clonal superior teak wood and were extracted using n-hexane, methanol, and hot water as the solvents. The average of n-hexane, methanol, hot water, and total extractives ranged from 0.49 to 2.77%, 2.27 to 17.76%, 0.65 to 7.47%, and 5.96 to 25.40%, respectively. Furthermore, the total phenolic content from soluble n-hexane and methanol extracts ranged from 162.16 to 295.24 mg GAE/g, while the total soluble polysaccharides ranged from 166.28 to 423.97 mg GluE/g. The results showed that the 8-year-samples had higher values in methanol extractive content (MEC) and lower in hot-water extractive content (HWEC) than the 6-year-old trees. In addition, the bark together with sapwood in branch and twig parts had higher concentrations of MEC and total extractive content (TEC) compared to the main stems. For radial direction, MEC, HWEC, and TEC levels were greater in bark than in other parts. The branch and twig parts also had higher phenolic concentrations compared to the main stem at the base part. Meanwhile, the sapwood at the branch and twig parts have higher total soluble polysaccharide concentration compared to the main stem.
This paper describes the chemical and physical properties of Pinus leiophylla, P. montezumae and P. Pseudostrobus timber by-products (wood chips, bark and wood-bark). The physical features determined were the initial moisture content, bulk density and calorific value whereas the determined chemical characteristics were pH, inorganic compounds, inorganic compounds microanalysis, extractives, lignin, and holocellulose. Such by-products were collected in the industrial complex at the Indigenous Community of Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, located in Michoacán, México. The initial moisture content of the samples varied from 33.6 to 56%, while their bulk density ranged from 0.19 to 0.31 g.cm-3. The calorific value for the wood residues of the three different species of pines varied from 17.95 to 18.93 MJ.kg-1. Regarding their chemical characteristics, barks were more acid than woods, and in general, the inorganic content was lower in woods than in barks. According to the X-ray microanalysis, the major inorganic compounds found in ash were calcium, magnesium, and potassium. No heavy metals were detected at all. For the three pine species, extractives levels in barks were higher than in woods. Also, barks contained a higher concentration of lignin than woods. The highest holocellulose content was found in wood residues rather than in barks. It is concluded then that the three pine species timber by-products present physic and chemical properties that make them suitable for the production of solid biofuel.
The structure of both cambium and the last-differentiated cells from cambium influence the adhesion of bark on wood. In the submitted paper, the bark/wood adhesion is evaluated by means of measuring the shear strength in longitudinal and tangential direction of the wood/bark interface on woody plant beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) during one year. The growing period and dormant period and moisture of the wood/bark interface proved to be important factors influencing the shear strength. The shear strength measured during the dormant period in the greenstate showed values approximately 100% higher than those measured during the growing period. Considering the 12%-moisture, the values of shear strength proved to be circa 300% higher in comparison to the green state. The shear area during the dormant period was led through the zone of the last-created sieve tubes of non-collapsed late phloem, whereas during the growing period the shear area passed through the cambium zone. The structure of shear areas is also significantly influenced by diverse structure of narrow and wide phloem rays.
Studies on the content and distribution of mineral substances including calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), lead (Pb) and strontium (Sr) were performed. Samples of Scots pine were gained from stems with Ist degradation degree of tree (considered to grow in the area with weak environmental pollution), IInd degradation degree (strong pollution) and IIIrd degradation degree (very strong pollution). Nitrogen industrial plant was acknowledged as the source of pollution. Samples were collected from butt-end, middle- and top sections of the stem in following zones: sapwood, heartwood adjacent sapwood, heartwood and bark. Results indicate that nitrogen industrial plant causes the decrease of mineral substances content in bark from butt-end section of stems with IInd and IIIrd degradation degree in relation to stems with Ist degradation degree. Calcium content is the highest in heartwood and decreases in the direction to stem perimeter, regardless of stem section and environmental pollution degree. Very strong pollution decreases potassium content in wood in comparison to samples collected in areas with strong and weak pollution. Environmental pollution also decreases sodium content in wood, and increases content of manganese, aluminum, lead and strontium.
Chosen metals contents were analyzed in Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in bark, roots and wood samples collected from the polluted environment. Samples were gained from three cca. 40-year old trunks, which were grown on Krakowskie Przedmieście st., next to the St. Anna church in Warsaw, Poland. Wood of trunk and the main roots, as well as bark from butt-end section were also sampled. Contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Al, K, Na and Sr were examined with the application of spectrometric methods. The results show that environmental pollution significantly influences the content of examined elements. The change of Na content is the most spectacular. Its content is hundred times higher, in wood and bark, as well as in the main roots, in relation tree from non-polluted environment, what is probably caused by urban environment salinity.
One-layer bark panels were internally reinforced with two different grid sizes fiberglass mesh sheets (M1 and M2). The thermal conductivity, water absorption, thickness swelling, static bending properties and internal bond strength of these panels were tested. The reinforcement doesn’t affect the thermal conductivity, but the physical and mechanical properties of the panel were improved. The thickness swelling was reduced by 7.43% and 12.93%; the water uptake decreased by 4.93% and 16.32% for the M1 and M2 sheets, respectively. MOR increased from 0.54 MPa to 2.44 and 2.1 MPa, and MOE increased from 0.28 GPa to 0.66 and 0.63 GPa, respectively. The internal bond didn’t change. The findings indicate that it is possible to produce internal reinforced bark panels for insulation materials depending on the characteristics and tensile properties of the reinforcing materials, as well as the adhesion properties and interfacial interaction of the composite materials.
The influence of tree species on basic density of wood, bark and small-wood was investigated here. Experimental material was obtained from 73 trees of 7 tree species, namely alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), birch (Betula pendula Roth.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) from the territory of Slovakia. Wood and bark samples were taken from discs cut from three trunk sections and from small-wood and branch parts coming from tree crowns. The volume of green samples was measured in graduated cylinders with a precision of 1 ml; a dry matter was measured with a precision of 0.01 g. The statistically significant effect has been shown in tree species, biomass fractions and locations on the tree. The average basic density of all species varies from 440 to 650 kg.m-3 for wood, for bark it is 380-670 kg.m-3 and for small-wood outside bark it reaches 490-650 kg.m-3. Alder and Black locust tree species have the lowest and highest wood density, Black locust and Turkey oak of bark and alder and Turkey oak of small-wood.
Adhesives made from lignin are one of the most promising alternatives to common ureaformaldehyde adhesives. One of the possible sources is from wood or bark liquefaction at low temperatures and pressure. The possibility of using forest wastes for the production of adhesives was the objective of this work. Eucalypt bark and branches are wastes produced in the company Pedrosa & Irmãos, which is a forest management company based in Portugal (Leiria). The wastes were liquefied with polyalcohols catalyzed by sulfuric acid. The water insoluble fraction of the liquefied material was used for the production of the bio-adhesive. Both fractions were characterized and the bonding performance of the bio-adhesive was tested by ABES. The bio-adhesives obtained from bark or branches were similar, exhibiting a bonding strength approximately half of the conventional UF resin.