Fixation of dye-type red and blue ink handwriting on aged paper

In this article, red and blue ink handwriting on aged paper was fixed by fixative to prevent handwriting from fading or diffusion during aqueous deacidification. Firstly, four fixatives were selected: polydimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA), the quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan (HACC), cationic guar gum (CGG), and benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride (TEBAC) alcohol solution, according to their fixation effects on filter paper dyes, and derive the optimal composition ratio of the above four fixatives. Experimentally derived that PDDA has an excellent fixation effect on red ink handwriting, and HACC has an excellent fixation effect on blue ink handwriting. In addition, HACC also has a positive impact on the conservation of handwriting in real archives. The mechanical properties of aged paper were improved, and the paper fibers had no obvious change after the fixation and deacidification processes.

Adsorption and fixation of soluble fire retardancy in Populus russkii and Cunninghamia lanceolata

Flame retardant treatment is a common method of wood preservation. However, the factory usually uses the same approach to all the wood, but lack of targeted so as to cause waste. This study used poplar and Chinese fir as the species investigated. These species were dipped with boron-nitrogen-phosphorus (B-P) fire retardant. The influences on material loading of processing method, concentration of fire retardant, and drying method were investigated. The contents of B and P were tested by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), after distilled water washing and ultrasonic washing. The results showed that the volume loading increased with the concentration of fire retardant. Freeze-drying can noticeably improve the volume loading, and the impact of the drying method was more notable on poplar than on Chinese fir. The fixation effect of the B and P in poplar was lower by ultrasonic washing than that was by distilled water washing. The fixation effect was opposite in the Chinese fir. Vacuum process was more suitable for the poplar (hardwood), and vacuum-pressure process was
more suitable for the Chinese fir (soft wood).

Study on the permeation and fixation of ACQ-C in poplar

In this paper, the effects of atmospheric pressure, vacuum and vacuum pressure impregnation on the permeability of alkaline copper quat in poplar were studied, and the permeability and fixation of preservatives were improved by pretreatment of poplar. The results show that the volume loading of wood can be increased by about 60 – 150% after 30 min of vacuum treatment, so the vacuum method is a simple and efficient preservation treatment method. In addition, ethanol treatment, heat treatment and microwave treatment can increase the fixation rate of copper ions by 5 – 10%, but the fixation rate of copper ions dropped by 17.83% after NaOH treatment for the dissolution of partial hemicellulose.