Gene pool of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under reforestation in extreme environmen

The article is devoted to the study of the gene pool formation mechanisms of arboreal plant populations at the sites of mining and processing of mineral resources and may be useful in managing the processes of natural forest remediation of disturbed lands. The aim of the research is to study the genetic diversity and spatial differentiation of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) undergrowth thriving on the industrial waste discharge of the Uchaly Mining and Processing Plant (the Southern Urals).
Isoenzymes of 7 enzymes were used as markers (encoded by 10 polymorphic loci Aat-1, Aat-2 and Aat-3, Gdh-1, Fdh-1, Lap-1, Lap-1, Skdh-1, 6-Pgdh-1 and Dia-1), separated by polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis. Genetic variability of the undergrowth under the forest canopy (7 samples, average number of avenues per locus A = 2.3-2.8, the observed heterozygosity was HO = 0.207 – 0.260, the expected heterozygosity HE = 0.201 – 0.273) and in industrial waste discharges (4 samples, A = 1.9 – 3.1, HO = 0.225 – 0.277; HE = 0.240 -0.298) varies over a wide range. In the parent stand, the observed heterozygosity (HO = 0.203) was lower than in any of the undergrowth samples. A comparatively high genetic differentiation of the undergrowth was found (the between-sample subdivision FST index was 3.8%, the average Nei genetic distance DNei = 0.015 with changes in individual pairs from 0.003 to 0.032), comparable with genetic differences in geographically separated populations.