Effects of Pressing Temperature and Compression Ratio on Density Distribution and Hardness of Surface Densified Poplar Wood

Process parameters play an important role in wood surface densification. In this study, the poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) wood was heated on one side at 100℃, 150℃ and 180℃, and compressed in the radial direction with the speed of 10 mm/min. The initial thickness of the wood samples were 30 mm, 26 mm and 23 mm, and they were all compressed to 20 mm and resulting in three different compression ratios: 33.3%, 23.1% and 13.0%. When the surface densification completed, the density distribution and hardness of the densified and un-treated samples were measured and analyzed. Results show that the compressing temperature mainly decided the formation of the density distribution curve and the peak density increased with the increasing temperature; as the compression ratio increased, the peak density increased and the thickness of the densified zone broadened; the surface hardness was highly correlated with the density distribution which was affected by temperature and compression ratio, and as the peak density increased and the thickness of the densified broadened the hardness increased accordingly. Therefore, by optimizing the process parameters such as the compressing temperature and compression ratio could generate a targeted density distribution which has the desired hardness.

Physical and mechanical characterization of structural wood used in pakistan

Six species of wood (Vachellia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ziziphus mauritiana, Albizia lebbeck, Melia azedarach, Dalbergia sissoo) were tested in compression and tension parallel to the grain. The specimens were collected from different areas of Pakistan. The compressive strengths, tension parallel to grain and hardness of the wood were determined by testing rectangular shape wooden specimens (ASTM D143 2014, Janka 1906). It was observed that compressive and tensile strength of Vachllia nilotica parallel to the grain is higher than other species whereas, Eucalyptus camaldulensis hardness behaviour along radial and tangential surface is higher among the wooden samples tested.

Variability of Black locust hardness in relation to different measurement direction and location along the stem

The variability of black locust wood hardiness along the stem determines potential uses for this type of material. Characterization of this parameter was conducted based on samples taken from black locust stands in the western of Poland. Study material drawn from each sample tree was divided into three groups (lower stem part, center of the stem and base of live crown) and measuring was performed in three directions (radial, longitudinal and tangential). Due to bimodal distribution of the data, longitudinal direction was analyzed separately from radial and tangential directions. For the longitudinal direction, significance of differences between various stem parts was confirmed (p<0.001), as well as the significance of differences between study sites (p<0.001). For the radial and tangential directions, significance of differences between sites, stem parts and trees was confirmed (p<0.001; p=0.001; p=0.005, respectively). Preferred wood material should come from lower stem part, taking into account the highest hardiness in the longitudinal direction.

Nanomechanical behavior of wood cell walls observed by different indentation loading prerequisites

The variations of nanomechanical behavior of wood cell walls under different peak loads, loading times, and holding times were studied. Samples were separately loaded to preset peak loads of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 μN. Changes in the micromechanical properties were tracked in the longitudinal direction to determine change values of the elastic modulus and hardness. Moreover, the creep behavior was also analyzed under different holding times. It was found that the longer the holding time, the larger the creep ratio of all of the samples, and the creep rate decreased slowly with longer loading times. Finally, when the peak load was larger, the displacement rate and strain rate increased, but the strain rate in each test exhibited a tendency to become constant after 10 s.

Wood quality of six eucalyptus clones planted in northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil

The present work had the goal of assessing the wood quality through physical-mechanical properties of six 5-year old eucalyptus clones currently planted in northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The following clones were assessed, five of them Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrids and one a clone of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The physical-mechanical properties were basic density as a function of tree height; pith-to-bark direction; linear, tangential and radial shrinkage; and anisotropic coefficient, longitudinal and parallel compression and static bending strengths; and hardness. Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrids showed the best wood quality. Concerning to mechanical results, the clones reached intermediate values of strength and rigidity, qualifying them for use in structural applications with less stringent requirements. Considering that all the clones had juvenile wood, the mechanical properties were satisfactory, making the clones suitable for industrial uses.

Alternative wood species for playgrounds wood from fruit trees

A number of orchard woods have been investigated for suitability in the playgrounds, in the view of responders. In this sense, photos were taken of the specially prepared samples as stimuli, and there were three different groups of respondents. It was observed that the participants were effective in terms of age grouping and material preferences. For group A and C, majority of the participants preferred wooden elements for playground material. However, the majority of participants in group B (50.5%) preferred plastic elements, followed by wooden (31.5%), and then metal (18.0%). Moreover, it was seen that the most significant factors for selection of material for a playground should be safety for both Group A (79%), and C (76.5%), whereas it was aesthetic appearance, for group B (71%). Similar results were found for color properties of wood — the majority of participants of all three groups preferred light colored wooden elements in playgrounds. The results for the aesthetic preferences of wood species judged one-by-one and judged together received similar results. The preference scores for fig wood (Figus canica) is significantly higher than for other wood species, while “wood color” and “aesthetic appearance” are reliable positive predictors to aesthetic preferences.