The effect of surface roughness and water contact angle of commercial paperboard before and after surface modification by calendering, coating and calendering and plasma treatment on the functionality of UHF RFID antennas printed with thermal transfer aluminum ribbon was evaluated. A hydrophilic surface was created by coating or plasma treatment, which improved the wettability of the paperboard surface, the spreading of the thermoplastic tie layer and the adhesion of the conductive aluminum layer. A new paper product was created with permanent surface wettability by coating, without the need for plasma treatment before printing. The plasma treatment provided time-limited wettability, needed only during printing, and made it possible to restore the original hydrophobic surface of the paperboard. In addition to the meaning of these surface modifications, the importance and need to reduce the surface roughness was confirmed, as the higher surface roughness of the paperboard limited the effect of the plasma treatment in terms of its printability and the functionality of the printed aluminum antenna. The printability of the paperboard and the functionality of the printed antennas were evaluated using electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivities of the dipole and inductor loop of the UHF RFID antennas printed on modified paperboards varied depending on the antenna design.