The article is focused on the production and environmental evaluation of wood composites using waste rubber in the construction industry. Used aqueous extracts were prepared from the experimental wooden composites with various additions of the waste rubber from tires and waste seals. The pH value and organic pollution (by COD) were determined in the aqueous extracts. The effect on the environmental components (aquatic and terrestrial) was ecotoxicologically tested using the test organisms Sinapis alba, Lemna minor and Daphnia magna. Preliminary acute ecotoxicity tests were performed.
In this work, wet-process fibreboards (hardboards) were produced in the laboratory using industrial wood fibres of the species European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) at the total volume of 40%, and white poplar (Populus alba L.) at 60% volume. The effects of hot pressing pressure (varied from 3.3 MPa to 5.3 MPa) and pressing time (from 255 s to 355 s) on the physical and mechanical properties of hardboards were investigated and optimal values of the parameters for fulfilling the European standard requirements were determined. It was concluded that hardboards with acceptable physical and mechanical properties may be produced from 60% poplar wood waste and residues, combined with 40% hardwood raw materials (beech and oak) by regulating the hot pressing regime only, i.e. pressure and pressing time. The following minimum parameters for producing hardboards from mixed hardwood tree species were determined: a pressure of 4.6 MPa and a pressing time of 280 s.