Cross-laminated timber (CLT) CLT is an excellent material for building and high load-bearing structural applications, but its fabrication and use are limited to softwood only. The suitability of aspen (Populus tremula L) wood for manufacturing CLT was assessed by using two adhesives, one-component polyurethane (1C-PUR) and melamine adhesive (ME). Physical properties like water absorption (WA), thickness swelling (TS), delamination, and mechanical properties like bond shear strength, bending modulus of elasticity, bending strength, and rolling shear strength were evaluated to examine its suitability. Compared to ME-bonded CLT, 1C-PUR bonded CLT panels displayed superior physical characteristics, with 70% passing the delamination test. CLT panels bonded with 1C-PUR adhesive also have better mechanical properties than ME-bonded CLT. CLT panels experienced three types of bending failure: rolling shear, delamination, and tension. Aspen CLT has similar or higher mechanical properties than traditional softwoods, making it suitable for CLT manufacturing.
The mechanical properties of CLT manufactured from densified low-density planted timber, Paraserianthes falcataria were studied in relation to changes in the area of pores for under densification. Conditioned laminas (MC ≤ 15%) underwent two-stage densification using hot-press machine at 105oC, 6 MPa, for 10 min each, with press released for 1 min 40 sec in between the stages, before cooling (< 100oC) to reduce immediate springback. The laminas with thickness 8 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm were produced using metal stoppers and further manufactured into three-layered CLT of 24 mm, 30 mm, and 45 mm thick. 20 mm undensified laminas with 60 mm CLT as the control. Results shows that modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and compression parallel to grain have improved significantly and showed negative correlation with area of pores, except for compression perpendicular to grain.
In the presented paper composite actions of various mass timber panels with concrete layer are compared. The composite action of timber and concrete by grooves in wood and by adhesive was realized. In the frame of experimental investigation bending test of real scale composite panels with cross-laminated and nailed/glued vertical planks mass timber was performed. In the analysis, vertical mid-span deflection of tested panels was compared and also some technological aspects of their production were taken into account.
A bending strength test was carried out on the strip-type cross-laminated timber (3 layers) that was combined differently by the cross-sectional annual ring orientation of the laminae under the same modulus of elasticity combination. In addition, the bending modulus of elasticity and the maximum bending moment predicted using the gamma method were compared with the results of the actual test. The result of the bending strength test showed no significant difference in bending strength among the specimens combined according to the annual ring orientation. Furthermore, when the outer tension layer of the cross-laminated timber was strengthened with a glass-fiber-reinforced plastic plate (volume ratio: 1.2%), the modulus of elasticity and the modulus of rupture increased by 4.2% and 16.3%, respectively. The ratios of the prediction results for the bending modulus of elasticity and the maximum bending moment by the gamma method to the actual test values were 1.01 and 0.96 on average, respectively, indicating that the two values were almost identical.
In this paper, the three-layer Canadian hemlock CLT panel was designed to test the elastic modulus and bending strength of CLT specimens by four-point bending method. The interlaminar shear of CLT specimens was tested by short-span three-point bending method. Strength, the shear strength and wood breaking rate of the CLT specimens were tested by the stair shear method. At the same time, the failure mode of the CLT board was analyzed. The main conclusions indicate that the test values of bending and shear performance of Hemlock CLT can meet the relevant grade requirements of standard ANSI APA PRG320: 2012. During the bending process, the CLT specimen firstly exhibits a rolling shear failure of vertical layer after reaching the non-elastic deformation phase. After that, the damage extends gradually to the interface layer. The final failure mode is shear failure of interface layer or tensile failure of parallel layer. The interlaminar shear performance is partly relevant to the converted timber performance of parallel layer of CLT under the short-span three-point bending test conditions. The position of interlaminar shear failures is concentrated near support points of specimens and the position is generally located at the interface between parallel and vertical layers, inclining to the parallel ones. CLT at Grade 1 has significantly higher interlaminar shear strength than CLT at Grade 2. There is a certain variability in the test results of wood failure rate of CLT. The overall mechanical properties of the hemlock specification material and the hemlock CLT can meet the relevant grade requirements of Standard ANSI APA PRG320: 2012. The above can provide reference for the optimization design and application work of CLT heavy-duty timber structure.
In this study, cyclic tests were performed on the larch CLT shear walls depending on the half lap reinforcement of half-lap connections and reinforced plywood of spline connections in order to evaluate the horizontal shear performance of the larch CLT walls. The test results show that there is no difference in residual strength depending on the reinforcement of half-lap connection, but their initial stiffness has been increased by 9%. There was no significant difference either in the residual strength of double spline connections depending on the application of reinforced plywood, while the spline reinforcement has failed to increase initial stiffness. All of the larch CLT walls constructed according to the edge connection shape were measured to have a strength reduction ratio of less than 10% in each horizontal displacement intervals and an equivalent viscous damping ratio of less than 10% for energy dissipation in the initial and final horizontal displacement intervals, thereby confirming that their excellent horizontal shear performance and seismic performance.