Impregnation on poplar wood with vegetable oils: Effects on physical mechanical and dimensional stability properties

In this study, vegetable oils were selected to modify poplar with vacuum-pressure impregnation technology and the optimum progress was studied. The weight percent gain (WPG), modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), water uptake rate (WUR), volume swelling rate (VSR) and volume shrinkage rate (VSR’) were evaluated. The results showed that the dimensional stability, physical and mechanical properties of treated wood were significantly improved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that castor oil was inserted into the interior of the wood through the pores. Vegetable oil modification (castor oil) decreased the intensities of hydroxyl, cellulose and hemicellulose specific peak in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results showed that castor oil treatment decreased the intensities of hydroxyl, cellulose and hemicellulose specific peak. Ultimately, the optimum process of castor oil treatment was impregnation pressure 1.8 MPa, time 1.0 h and temperature 85°C based on the range and variance analysis.

The study on glue-applying methods and hot-pressing technology of parallel strand lumber

Parallel strand lumber (PSL) was manufactured from the veneer strand cut from the poplar broken veneers of the plywood enterprises, by analyzing the influence of the size of veneer strands, the glue concentration and glue-applying time on the glue-absorbing amount of veneer strands, the influence of three different glue-applying was, hot-pressing time and temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of PSL was reviewed and the hot-pressing technology was optimized. The experiment results showed that the size of the veneer strands have not notable influence on the gluing-absorbing amount, and mainly affect the homogeneity and appearance quality of the product. The glue concentration is one main factor to affect the glue-absorbing amount of veneer strands and PF resin of 30% concentration was chosen. The glue-applying way is the main factor to affect the mechanical property of PSL. The hot-pressing time and temperature have significant influence on physical and mechanical properties of PSL. Comprehensively considering, the physical and mechanical properties and homogeneity of products are better using the veneer strands with 100 mm length, the glue-spraying way and hot-pressing technology with the time 35 min and the temperature of 150°C.

Manufacture of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels from agribased lignocellulosic biomass

Lignocellulosics fibers and commercially-manufactured-chip (Pinus sylvestris L., Fagus orientalis and Quercus robur L.) with 11% moisture conten twere used for the experiment. The mixingratios of lignocellulosics fibers was 20% which is from okra and tobaccos talks, hazelnut and walnuts hell, and pinecone for each mixture in preformed panel and commercially-manufactured-chip was 100 % for the control sample. A commercial ureaformaldehyde (UF) adhesive was used as a binder. The physical and mechanical properties such as density, thickness swelling (TS), bending strength (BS), modulus elasticity (MOE), internalbond (IB), screw holding ability (SHA) perpendicular to the plane of panel, Janka hardness perpendicular to the plane of panel properties of MDF were measured.The results indicated that all the panels met the general purpose-use requirements of TS-EN. Thus, our results suggest that biomass from different sources can be an alternative raw material for MDF manufacturing process.

The effect of hardener on adhesive and fiberboard properties

Ureaformaldehyde adhesive requires hardener and about 4-6.5 pH to be cured. In this study, boric acid, boron oxide, borax, sodium perborate tetrahydrate, sodium chloride, sodium chlorite and control samples containing ammonium chloride was used as an hardener to investigate cureability of urea formaldehyde adhesive. Chemicals used as an hardener tested to demonstrate the effect on gelation time, swelling properties, MOR and MOE. Ammonium chloride, boric acid and boron oxide improved to properties when used as an hardener in single use or in mixture.

Effect of the passive chemical modification of wood with silicon dioxide (silica) on its properties and inhibition of moulds

This work investigates how wood modification with silicon dioxide affects its selected physical and mechanical properties and resistance to moulds. Silicon mineralization can improve some of the technical properties of wood and extend the service-life of wooden structures. Silicon, which is contained in inorganic and organic-inorganic substances that are used for artificial wood mineralization or is the main component at natural wood mineralization, was used in the form of colloidal silicon dioxide and its various concentrations for pressure impregnation of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Silver fir (Abies alba) wood samples. Following, physical, mechanical and biological properties of such modified woodswere tested together with waterlogged fir wood stored in water over a long period. Silicon-dioxide did not significantly improve properties of beech and fir woods, probably due to the hypothesis, that none covalent bonds between the silicon and the OH- groups of cellulose, hemicelluloses or lignin could be created in the cell-walls of the silicon-modified woods.

A comparative study on the physical and mechanical properties of Dahurian larch and Japanese larch grown in Korea

To compare the wood quality of Dahurian larch and Japanese larch growing in Korea, the physical and mechanical properties were examined using the Korean standards. The proportion of heartwood was 82% and 72% in Dahurian and Japanese larch, respectively. The percentage of latewood was 42% in Dahurian larch and 35% in Japanese larch. The growth ring width of Dahurian larch was narrower than that of Japanese larch. Dahurian larch showed about 20% higher green moisture content compare to Japanese larch wood. Density and shrinkage of Dahurian larch were higher than Japanese larch. Axial compression strength, young`s modulus in compression, and shearing strength in heartwood of Dahurian larch were 11 MPa, 686 MPa, and 2.3 MPa, respectively, showing higher value than Japanese larch. The hardness was in the range of 13.8–38.7 MPa in Dahurian larch and 17.7–48.4 MPa in Japanese larch. The compression strength parallel to the grain and shearing strength in both species were significantly correlated with oven-dried density. Besides, the hardness in Dahurian larch was significantly correlated with latewood percentage and oven-dried density. In conclusion, the differences in the properties of both species were revealed and the results can be used for quality indices of both wood species.

Physical and mechanical properties of modified poplar wood by heat treatment and impregnation of sodium silicate solution

The objective of this study was to improve physical and mechanical properties of fast-growing Chinese white poplar wood (Populus tomentosa Carrière). To this purpose, the heat treatment and impregnation by sodium silicate solution were investigated. In experiments, four processes under four different conditions were applied on poplar wood samples: temperature treatment (T), solution treatment (J), first solution and then temperature treatment (J-T) and first temperature and then solution treatment (T-J). The results showed that all measured mechanical properties were improved under conditions of J process. The hardness, impact toughness, bending strength and modulus of elasticity were improved by 8.4%, 29.2%, 12.0% and 16.1%, respectively. Additionally, tested wood samples exhibited significant increasing of values some mechanical properties such as hardness (70.1%) and modulus of elasticity (80.4%) in comparison with values for untreated samples if treatment was conducted under J-T process conditions. Treated wood by this technology could be utilized as solid wood composite or material for flooring substrate.