About the Journal

This journal is covered by Thomson Reuters Materials Science Citation Index ExpandedTM,CAB Internacional Abstracting Services and Scopus.

Wood Research publishes original papers aimed at recent advances in all branches of wood science (biology, chemistry, wood physics and mechanics, mechanical and chemical processing etc.). Submission of the manuscript implies that it has not been published before and it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

e-ISSN 2729-8906
ISSN 1336-4561

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Latest Articles

Short notes: First Report of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Alternaria tenuissima in cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica M.) in Morocco

Our research focuses on identifying lignivorous fungus from decayed cedarwood. A sample was taken from Azrou forest’s cedar grove, which is a part of Morocco’s Ifrane National Park. On a water agar medium first, and subsequently a PDA medium, the isolated fungus was cultured and purified. After the fungus was purified, an optical microscope morphological analysis allowed us to identify the pathogen Alternaria tenuissima. These findings were confirmed by a molecular characterisation, which had a coverage rate of 94% and an identity of 94,88%. This is the first report of A. tenuissima in decomposing cedarwood that we are knowledge of.

Color Improvement of Pretreated Gmelina Wood by Impregnation of Natural Dyes

The purpose of this research was to improve the appearance of pretreated gmelina wood (Gmelina arborea) by coloring with a natural dye. The dyes used in this research were obtained from sappan (Caesalpinia sappan) and tegeran (Cudrania javanensis) wood waste with a size of 20-40 mesh. The anatomical characteristic that determined the permeability of the gmelina wood was investigated referring to International Anatomist Wood Association (IAWA), while the characteristic of the dye was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wood was colored by immersing in dye mixture (ratio dye and water of 1:5 wt/wt) at room temperature during 72 h. The results showed that the lumen diameter of vessel, fiber, and pit of gmelina observed were 159 μm, 23 μm, and 6 μm, respectively. The XRD analysis showed that the structure of sappan was more amorphous than tegeran, which led to penetrate deeper into the wood. The pretreated wood provided more dyes penetration compared to the untreated wood due to the removal extractives from the wood. The pretreatment on gmelina wood would facilitate the natural dye to be impregnated into the wood cell resulting in more attractive color of the wood.

Stepwise Extraction of Hemicelluloses with Water and Alkali from Larch Wood and their Sugar Compositions

The aim of the present study was to isolate hemicelluloses by stepwise extraction with water and alkali from larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr) sapwood and heartwood. One water-soluble arabinogalactan (AG) and three alkali-soluble hemicelluloses- arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX), galactoglucomannan (GGM) and glucomannan (GM) were obtained. The yield of AG extracted with hot-water from larch heartwood was 7.57%, it was 17.96% in total of three alkali-extracted hemicelluloses. There was no significant difference in the yield of hemicelluloses from sapwood and heartwood. Monosaccharide compositions of the hemicelluloses were determined by high performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The results showed that galactose and mannose were the main glycosyl units of hemicellulose, followed by xylose. Galactose mainly derived from AG, whereas mannose and xylose originated from alkali-extracted hemicelluloses.

Effects of Different Climate Types on Color Change of Wood Material used Outdoor

Field tests are important for evaluating how wood performs in real-world conditions and making informed choices for material selection. These tests help assess wood’s durability, strength, decay processes, and resistance against harmful organisms. Furthermore, it helps users make more informed decisions about the color of wood and understand the importance of color changes depending on the place and time of use. Because weather conditions are a significant factor that influences the color of wood. Wood that is exposed to prolonged sunlight, moisture, and rain may experience fading, darkening, or staining in its color. In this study, heartwood, sapwood, and CCB impregnated sapwood samples of Scotch pine, spruce, beech and alder were exposed to the soil contact (hazard class 4) according to EN 252 for 3 years in Trabzon, Muğla, Çanakkale, and Elazığ provinces of Turkey with completely different climatic conditions from each other. Color parameters and color change values were evaluated using L*, a*, b* and ΔE* of the samples collected from test sites. The most significant color change was observed at Scotch pine in Çanakkale province. Greater color changes were observed in the heartwood of coniferous species. Impregnated samples showed the least color change.

Analysis of Finger-Joints in Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Composite Glued Laminated Timber Beams

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of finger-joint reinforcement on the bending strength and stiffness of glulam beams made from high-density Eucalyptus spp. glued with resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive. Six glulam beams were tested: three reinforced with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) and three unreinforced for comparison. The GFRP was placed between the last two laminates and at the bottom edge of the glulam only in the finger-joint position. The stiffness and strength of glulam beams were evaluated using static bending tests, which showed that the use of GFRP reinforcement resulted in a gain of more than 100% in average ultimate bending moment and about 10% in average bending stiffness. To calculate the theoretical bending stiffness and normal stresses, a theoretical analysis of beam bending was performed using the transformed section method, which showed agreement with the experimental results.

Study on preparation and properties of Anti-Ultraviolet Aging Wood-Plastic Composites

The degradable wood-plastic composites (WPC) were prepared by compression molding in this study. Polylactic acid (PLA), poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and salix powder were used as the main raw materials and nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) was used as anti-ultraviolet filler. The results show that when the addition amount of nano-TIO2 was 2%, the static bending strength and elastic modulus of WPC reach 41.88 MPa and 3730 MPa, respectively, which can meet the commercial application of WPC in building formwork. At this time, the composite material has a better effect of absorbing and reflecting ultraviolet light. The static bending strength, elastic modulus, tensile strength and impact strength of WPC were reduced by 68.3%, 61.5%, 51.9% and 57.4%, respectively. The mass loss rate and water absorption were 6.1% and 22.6%, respectively, that shows its good degradation performance. This study provides a low-cost and simple method for the design of anti-UV aging, high-performance and degradable WPC, which has broad application prospects in packaging, construction and other fields.

Stain Fungi Control in Pinus sp. Wood with Silica mesoporous Particles Loaded with Essential Oils

The use of essential oils (EO) carried onto mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) was tested to control pinewood stains. Three types of MSPs were synthesized and physicochemically characterized with N2 physisorption (type IV), X-ray diffraction [Miller indices (100), (110), (200)], scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential (negative values), dynamic light scattering (< 200 nm) and thermogravimetric analysis (5% to 10% weight loss). A response surface design was used to find the EO loading conditions to control stain, the latter was measured as colour change with the CIEDE2000 formula. The essential oil loading onto MSPC was physicochemically confirmed by a weight loss of 47% in the thermogravimetric analysis. The Citrus, Syzygium sp. and Tagetes sp. oils carried onto mesoporous particles MSPC (30:1 w/w) controlled the pinewood stain caused by Alternaria sp. and Geosmithia sp. This was demonstrated by the absence of pigmentation and scarce fungal growth.

Changes in Hemicellulose Structure Associated with the Transition from Earlywood to Latewood at Juvenile Wood in Cryptomeria Japonica

The chemical composition and variations in chemical structure of hemicellulose in earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) of two individual Japanese cedar trees (C-Boka and T-Boka) were investigated. The trees were cultivated under different growth conditions: C-Boka grew slowly in a forest, while T-Boka grew rapidly in a location rich in nutrients and sunshine. For the chemical structure of hemicellulose, arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX) showed varied side-chain substitution rates with glucuronic acid and different molecular weights in the transition between EW and LW. In contrast, the fundamental composition of glucomannan/galactoglucomannan (GM/GGM) was relatively unchanged between EW and LW. The modification of AGX and GM/GGM from EW to LW differed between C-Boka and T-Boka and might be influenced by the growth rate of the trees.

Effect of Anatomical Structure on Dimensional Stability of Low Molecular Weight Phenol-Formaldehyde Impregnated Wood

This research deals with low molecular weight-phenol formaldehyde (LMW–PF) impregnation on sepetir (Sindora spp), nyatoh (Palaquium spp.), and pisang putih (Mezzettia spp.) woods to determine the effect of different anatomical structure on weight percent gain and dimensional stability improvement. The wood samples were impregnated using LMW–PF solutions with 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11% of concentrations (w/w), vacuum-pressured (–98 kPa, 15 min, 350 kPa, 4 h), and re-immersed in 80°C for 3 h. According to the findings, LMW–PF impregnation reduced coefficient of swelling by 9.64–29.95%, and increased anti-swelling efficiency by 12.24–29.91%. Additionally, the water absorption and thickness swelling reduced by 2.43–38.75% and 15.94–34.21%, respectively, indicating the improvement of dimensional stability. Microscopy and NIR analysis revealed the presence and reaction of LMW–PF within porous wood matrix. The effect of diverse anatomical structures caused complexity on LMW–PF impregnation. Sepetir-treated wood with fewer anatomical barriers resulted in better dimensional stability improvement than others.

Investigation of Bending Strength of Tannin Impregnated Wooden Beams after Heat Treatment

In this study, the changes in bending strength were investigated by applying heat-treatment to laminated beams modified with acorn tannin to improve the mechanical properties of wooden load-bearing structural members. For this purpose, acorn tannin was impregnated on samples prepared from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oak (Quercus petraea L.), and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods. Heat treatment was applied to the samples impregnated with acorn tannin at 150ºC for 3 hours. Untreated, heat-treated, and tannin-modified samples were conditioned until they reached constant weight at 20ºC at 65% relative humidity (RH), 40ºC at 35% RH, and 10ºC at 50% RH. Bending resistance tests were applied to the elements that are conditioned in outdoor conditions according to ISO 13061-3. The results of bilateral interaction between tree species and treatment type were compared, the highest bending strength increase was found in Scotch pine samples by 5% compared to control samples.