The addition of inorganic filler material in medium density fiberboard (MDF) and the effect on material properties as a function of particle size was examined. Medium density fiberboard was manufactured in a laboratory scale environment to a target raw density of 750 kgm-3. Wood fibers were replaced by using calcium carbonate at 3 and 10 wt.% using fillers with weighted median particle sizes of d50 = 2.0 μm and d50 = 30 μm, respectively. Urea formaldehyde resin was used as binder in all MDF. The influence of filler addition on the modulus of elasticity, bending and tensile strength, dimensional stability and liquid permeability was investigated. The results demonstrate the effect of filler content and its dependence on particle size. The addition of filler with d50 = 30 μm does not have any influence on material properties up to a filler content of 10 wt.%. Using the finer filler with d50 = 2.0 μm at 10 wt.% filler, the quantity significantly increases the water adsorption and swelling behavior and reduces the strength properties of the MDF.